Global HF radar network had been established to share important ocean current data between nations. The network will also enable the sharing of information and expertise for the creation of new national radar networks, enhancement of existing networks and training of personnel. Further details are available at the Group on Earth Observation, GEO, Global High Frequency (HF) Radar Network Component section.
The U.N. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) collaborates with dozens of international programs and organizations to coordinate global scale efforts transitioning oceanography science to operational oceanographic services and products providing societal benefits and protecting the environment. The Global Ocean Observing System, GOOS, is the overarching coordination tool for these observation systems.
GOOS is a system of programs, each of which is working on different and complementary aspects of establishing an operational ocean observation capability for all of the world's nations. International cooperation is always the first priority of GOOS.
GOOS is designed and being implemented to embrace the oceans as a single entity, to provide a global view of the ocean system. It is a permanent global system for observations, modeling, and analysis of marine and ocean variables to support operational ocean services worldwide. GOOS provides accurate descriptions of the present state of the oceans, including living resources, continuous forecasts of the future conditions of the sea for as far ahead as possible, and the basis for forecasts of climate change.
GOOS is designed to monitor, understand and predict weather and climate; describe and forecast the state of the ocean, including living resources; improve management of marine and coastal ecosystems and resources; mitigate damage from natural hazards and pollution; protect life and property on coasts and at sea; and enable scientific research.
GOOS is implemented by member states via their government agencies, navies and oceanographic research institutions working together in a wide range of thematic panels and regional alliances. The U.S.-GOOS Regional Alliance is the GOOS IOC interface to the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS).
The Panel for Integrated Coastal Observations, PICO, part of the GOOS, Scientific Steering Committee, has submitted its final report on the implementation of the Coastal Module of GOOS to the GOOS Project Office for publication in the coming months by the IOC.
Coastal GOOS reports and information:
The Group on Earth Observations, GEO, is coordinating efforts to build a Global Earth Observation System of Systems, or GEOSS. GEO was launched in response to calls for action by the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development and by the G8 (Group of Eight) leading industrialized countries. These high-level meetings recognized that international collaboration is essential for exploiting the growing potential of Earth observations to support decision making in an increasingly complex and environmentally stressed world.
GEO is a voluntary partnership of governments and international organizations. It provides a framework within which these partners can develop new projects and coordinate their strategies and investments. As of March 2012, GEO’s Members include 88 Governments and the European Commission. In addition, 64 intergovernmental, international, and regional organizations with a mandate in Earth observation or related issues have been recognized as Participating Organizations.
GEO is constructing GEOSS on the basis of a 10-Year Implementation Plan for the period 2005 to 2015. The Plan defines a vision statement for GEOSS, its purpose and scope, expected benefits, and the nine “Societal Benefit Areas” of disasters, health, energy, climate, water, weather, ecosystems, agriculture and biodiversity.
GEO is coordinating efforts to build a Global Earth Observation System of Systems, or GEOSS. GOOS is the oceanographic component of GEOSS.
Under the auspices of GEOSS, a task has been submitted for the 2012-2015 Work Plan of GEO, entitled "Blue Planet". The intent is to provide sustained ocean observations and information to underpin the development, and assess the efficacy, of global-change adaptation measures (such as those related to vulnerability and impacts of sea-level rise).
Further, it would improve the global coverage and data accuracy of coastal and open-ocean observing systems (remote-sensing and in-situ); coordinate and promote the gathering, processing, and analysis of ocean observations; develop a global operational ocean forecasting network; establish a global ocean information system by making observations and information, generated on a routine basis, available through the GEOSS Common Infrastructure; provide advanced training in ocean observations, especially for developing countries; and, raise awareness of biodiversity issues in the ocean.
The global ocean observing system for climate, which contributes to the global in situ component of the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS), has now achieved about 61% of its initial design goal. While this observing system, implemented cooperatively by over seventy countries worldwide, serves multiple applications, it is designed primarily to address climate requirements defined by the international Global Climate Observing System (GCOS). The U.S. contribution to the system, described here, is implemented as an interdependent set of observational subsystems that constitute about half of the over 8,000 observing platforms deployed by the world community.
While designed to provide information that is critical to NOAA’s climate and weather forecast missions, global ocean observations also support:
This system strives to deliver continuous instrumental records and global analyses of the following phenomena, which serve as scientific drivers of the observing system:
Sea Surface Temperature and Surface Currents, to identify significant patterns of climate variability
Ocean Heat Content and Transport, to better understand the extent to which the ocean sequesters heat, to identify where heat enters the ocean and where it emerges to interact with the atmosphere, and to identify changes in thermohaline circulation and monitor for indications of possible abrupt climate change.
Air-Sea Exchanges of Heat, Momentum, and Freshwater, to identify changes in forcing functions driving ocean and atmospheric conditions, and to elucidate oceanic influences on the global water cycle.
Sea Level, to identify changes resulting from trends and variability in climate.
Ocean Carbon Uptake and Content, to better understand the extent to which the ocean sequesters CO2 and how cycling among ocean-land-atmosphere carbon reservoirs varies on seasonal-to-decadal time scales.
Sea Ice Thickness and Extent, to elucidate climate variability and rapidly changing climate at high latitudes.
Tide gauges are necessary for accurately measuring long-term trends in sea level change and for calibration and validation of the measurements from satellite altimeters, which are assimilated into global climate models for predicting climate variability and change.
Global sea surface temperature analyses are derived from satellite retrievals, but the satellite measurements must be continuously calibrated using surface in situ measurements. The design for the global surface drifting buoy array (GCOS- 92) calls for 1,250 buoys to be maintained globally, spaced approximately 500 km apart in order to adequately tune satellite measurements.
Most of the heat from the sun enters the ocean in the tropical/sub-tropical belt. Past understanding of the role of the tropics in forcing mid-latitude weather and climate has been garnered through the observations of the tropical moored buoy array in the Pacific Ocean, TAO/TRITON (Tropical Atmosphere Ocean/Triangle Trans-Ocean Buoy Network), which now comprises 67 moorings. A similar array of 17 surface moorings in the Atlantic basin, PIRATA (Prediction and Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic) is further improving forecasting capabilities and is elucidating causes of longer-term changes in the ocean. The Indian Ocean array, RAMA (Research Moored Array for African- Asian-Australian Monsoon Analysis and Prediction), whose system design calls for 46 moorings, will complete global coverage of the Earth’s tropical oceans; 24 RAMA moorings have thus far been deployed.
The global atmospheric and oceanic data from the Ships of Opportunity Program (SOOP) provide the foundation for understanding long-term changes in marine climate. The ships of opportunity are commercial carriers that transit scientifically important trans-oceanic routes; they volunteer to take ocean measurements using NOAA-supplied instruments, or host NOAA technicians during the transits to take the measurements.
The heat content of the world’s oceans and the transfer of that heat to and from the atmosphere are variables central to the climate system and are directly responsible for influencing worldwide sea levels. The Argo array of profiling floats, which measures temperature and salinity down to 2000 meters below the ocean surface, provides broad-scale, basin-wide monitoring of the upper ocean heat content. The initial goal of three thousand homogeneously-distributed floats in active service throughout the world’s oceans, providing data without temporal bias, was achieved in October 2007.
Sustained time-series of oceanic and atmospheric climate-relevant parameters and air-sea exchange of heat, freshwater and carbon dioxide are central to documenting and understanding trends and variability in the climate system. To this end, NOAA, together with international partners, is implementing a global network of ocean reference station moored buoys to provide the most accurate long-term climate data records of oceanic and near-surface atmospheric parameters in key ocean regimes.
Projections of global climate change are closely linked to assumptions about the interactions among the atmosphere, land, and ocean that control levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide.
To this end, NOAA deploys carbon dioxide sampling on moored arrays and on Ships of Opportunity to analyze the seasonal variability of carbon exchange between the ocean and atmosphere. Additionally, in partnership with NSF, NOAA participates in systematic global ocean surveys that provide a comprehensive ocean carbon inventory once every ten years.
Climate change is occurring rapidly in the Arctic, where the environment is particularly sensitive to climate variability and change. Therefore, a high priority program of sustained Arctic observations is being conducted utilizing ship-based cruises, permanent oceanographic moorings, gliders, ice beacons and buoys, supplemented by acquisition and analysis of historical and satellite-based data sets.